1100 Decorative French Ironwork Designs (Dover Pictorial by Denonvilliers Co.

By Denonvilliers Co.

Valuable resource of knowledge for artwork historians, craftspeople, buyers, creditors, and preservationists contains countless numbers of finely particular illustrations of backyard seats, candelabras, moldings, gates, balcony grilles, vases, crosses, funerary adorns and monuments, finials, doorknobs and plenty of different decorative good points. A wealthy resource of proposal and royalty-free pics, besides, for advertisement artists and architects.

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But the consequences were evident. 61 Communities were aware, too, of the consequences of altering riverbeds. 62 The solution was most commonly seen in replanting. 64 Indeed, in this region of France, the cahiers of the Third Estate consistently asserted that it was the lack of foresight of the seigneurs which was the real cause of wood shortage and high prices. The small-town bourgeois who dominated the drawing up of the Third Estate cahier for the sénéchausée of Limoux similarly called for the development of schemes to encourage reforestation.

92 The cahiers have much to tell us about collective identity in regions such as this where French was a foreign language to most people. Occitans were conscious of the ancient linguistic and territorial division which separated them from the Catalan communities just across the linguistic border in the Roussillon, and occasionally still described themselves as living on a frontier, which they had until 1659. The southernmost Occitan parish, Leucate, fulminated against the inhabitants of the nearby Catalan village of St-Laurent-de-la-Salanque and asked why they had to pay to fish in the étang of Salses while the privileged Catalans did not.

45 Such resentments were further irritated by the nobility’s perceived taste for luxury consumption. 50 Some communities wanted completely free access to the forests for their livestock. 53 24 Living the French Revolution, 1789–99 This insistence of rural folk that forest resources be sustainable was not commonly matched by sympathy to the fauna which inhabited them. Seigneurial privileges in hunting and fishing, and the maintenance of dovecotes and rabbit-warrens, were among the most common grievances of rural parishes.

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