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John Gillmoure/Corbis. Reproduced by permission. which have a negative charge. Atoms also have subatomic particles that have a positive charge, called protons. In a water molecule, H2O, more of the shared electrons collect around the oxygen atom than around the hydrogen atoms. This gives the oxygen end of the molecule a negative electrical charge and the hydrogen ends a positive electrical charge. This property of the water molecule, called dipolarity, gives water many of its chemical and physical characteristics.
Water is found in three states At the temperatures and pressures found on Earth, water can be found as a gas, liquid, and solid. A notable property of water is that it is densest, and therefore heaviest, at about 39°F (4°C). Water turns to ice at even colder temperatures, 32°F (0°C). When water turns to ice, it gains a crystal-like structure. In this form, nearly all the water molecules are joined by the maximum number of hydrogen bonds, which is four. [These hydrogen bonds force the water molecules to move away from each other compared to when they are in the liquid state.
Different orbitals hold different numbers of electrons. The first orbital contains two of these electrons and the second orbital contains six. Hydrogen atoms contain one proton and one electron. When water forms, electrons are shared between each of the hydrogen atoms and the oxygen atom. The sharing of an electron between two atoms forms a covalent bond (this is not a physical bond, atoms do not touch). The covalent bonds result in full outer orbitals for both atoms: eight in the second orbital of the oxygen and two in the first orbital of the hydrogen.