By David Reed Greenwood; G L Kingsbury; J G Cleland; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development
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Extra resources for A handbook of key federal regulations and criteria for multimedia environmental control
Radiation Safety Officer's Handbook CHAPTER A3 A3-JJ ele e e Gasket Locking u Tabs inu ' que' 1_3456 e LD le Chi s Insert l _______ _ _ Co ele e e uter Coded que No. Outer Case Alu le le e Viewing Window e inu e e e Window e le Mylar (Skin Dose) Window l Two "chips� of TLD material (lithium fluoride) are mounted on an aluminum carrier or "plaque�. The plaque has a serial number printed on it, and the same serial number is punched out as holes in the metal (BCD computer-readable code). The plaque fits (one way only) into a plastic tray having circular cut-outs to permit unimpeded irradiation of the TLD chips, and the tray slides into an outer plastic case and locks in position.
The electrons emitted by the photocathode are accelerated to the first dynode by the voltage applied to the tube, and release a greater number of electrons on striking the dynode. These electrons are in turn accelerated to the second dynode, and so on down the PMT, until the anode collects an amplified signal pulse whose size is proportional to the energy deposited in the NaI(TI) crystal. g. g. 125I) which may be severely or totally attenuated by the window material of any previously described detector.
The presence of material which absorbs or scatters the emitted radiation. Charged particles, such as Beta particles, are readily absorbed or scattered by air, so that their accurate measurement requires that the detector be close to or in contact with the source. X-rays and gamma rays are less affected by air and can be detected at some distance from the source. Under these circumstances the inverse square law can be applied, which states that the intensity of the radiation varies as the inverse of the square of the distance from the source.