By Adrian White PhD MA BM BCh, Mike Cummings MB ChB Dip Med Ac, Jacqueline Filshie MBBS FRCA
This ebook is a transparent and useful introductory advisor to the perform of clinical acupuncture. It describes the Western clinical method of using acupuncture as a treatment following orthodox prognosis. The textual content covers questions of safety, various methods to acupuncture, uncomplicated aspect details, scientific concerns and the appliance of acupuncture in scientific stipulations, specifically within the therapy of pain.A functional advisor to the foundations and medical perform of scientific acupunctureA transparent advisor to the neurophysiological rules which underlie clinical ways to acupunctureA easy clarification of the various kinds of scientific acupuncture treatmentAllows the reader to accrue the sensible wisdom invaluable earlier than commencing to paintings with scientific acupuncture.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Western Medical Acupuncture
1 Graph indicating changes of dental pain threshold during electrical stimulation to needles in hands and cheeks, showing the delay in rise and fall of analgesia after onset and cessation of acupuncture. ) It is important to note that the discussion above refers to release of the opioid peptides within the CSF. However, b-endorphin is also released from the pituitary directly into the blood stream. This happens in response to several stimuli, not just acupuncture, and the precise role of this circulating b-endorphin in analgesia is not fully understood.
1. b-endorphin plays an important role in acupuncture analgesia. In a piece of research that has become a landmark, acupuncture increased the concentrations of b-endorphin in the CSF of patients with pain, whereas control patients who did not receive acupuncture showed no changes (Clement-Jones et al 1980). Subsequent studies have shown that the analgesic effect of acupuncture has a slow onset, reaches a peak after about 20 minutes, and then decays slowly after removing the needles (Fig. 1). This time pattern is entirely consistent with the action of neuromodulator release.
E. in the brainstem and the brain itself. Somatic afferents: anatomy and physiology Afferent nerve pathways: small unmyelinated and myelinated nerves The afferent nerves enter the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. 1. Note that we use the term ‘Ad’ to include both the true Ad fibres in skin and the type II/III fibres in muscle, which acupuncture needles stimulate. 1 Section of spinal cord, showing projections of (a) acupuncture stimulus (myelinated nerve) and (b) noxious stimulus (unmyelinated nerve) to the dorsal horn (c).