By Margaret Cross
Pupil Unit courses are ideal for revision. every one consultant is written by means of an examiner and explains the unit specifications, summarises the proper unit content material and contains a sequence of specimen questions and solutions.
Read Online or Download AQA AS Chemistry Student Unit Guide : Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry PDF
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Extra info for AQA AS Chemistry Student Unit Guide : Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry
Ii) Explain why magnesium has a higher ﬁrst ionisation energy than sodium. (iii) State the full electron conﬁgurations of magnesium and aluminium. (iv) Explain why the ﬁrst ionisation energy of aluminium is less than that for magnesium. (v) Predict a value for the ﬁrst ionisation energy of phosphorus and explain how you estimated your answer. (vi) State the full electron conﬁgurations of phosphorus and sulfur. (vii) Explain why the ﬁrst ionisation energy of sulfur is less than that of phosphorus.
Ice, H2O(s) In liquid water, the molecules are associated by hydrogen bonds in varying, continuously changing combinations. When water freezes, the molecules arrange themselves so that each oxygen atom forms two hydrogen bonds with hydrogen atoms of other water molecules. This results in fixed, three-dimensional, tetrahedral arrangements of hydrogen bonds and, in the resulting lattice structure, six water molecules form hexagonal rings. This lattice structure holds the water molecules further apart than in the liquid, which results in ice being less dense than water.
Add another four for the bonded fluorine atoms and then divide by two. This gives six electron pairs; so the molecule is based on an octahedral shape. There are four bonding pairs and two lone pairs, so the shape is square planar. The lone pairs are the maximum distance apart. F F Xe F 90º F XeF4 41 AS Chemistry SF4 Sulfur (S) has six outer electrons. Add another four for the bonded fluorine atoms and divide by two. This gives five electron pairs; so the molecule is based on a trigonal bipyramidal shape.