By C B Lucas
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Additional info for Atomic and Molecular Beams: Production and Collimation
English and Zorn only discuss ovens briefly but also review free jet sources. Toennies (1974) discusses crossed molecular beam methods used to study elastic, inelastic and reactive scattering and gives a brief discussion of both thermal beam production and free jet sources. Vályi (1977) devotes his book to details of sources of atoms and ions, but unfortunately, only part of a chapter is devoted to thermal atomic beam production. The techniques for producing beams of refractory atoms and also metastable atoms for use with the magnetic resonance method have been reviewed by Penselin (1978), who also discusses the results achieved on both stable and radioactive isotopes.
Note that other values for atomic diameters are often quoted that differ somewhat from these. These may result from one or more combinations of superseded viscosity data, use of other transport properties or other theoretical models or using NTP rather than laboratory temperature.
Free jet sources are also considered. Anderson (1974) gives a brief introduction to the history of thermal atomic beam production and then discusses how this led to the development of nozzle sources, which he discusses in detail. Childs (1974) reviews magnetic resonance studies on beams of metastable atoms and includes brief details of their production and detection to provide data on atomic structure. English and Zorn (1974) briefly discuss flow through orifices, slits and channels, including the Maxwellian velocity distribution in a beam.