By T. A. H. Peacocke
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Extra info for Atomic Theory and Structure of the Atom. Atomic and Nuclear Chemistry
Such a small volume had to be measured by means of a Macleod gauge at low pressure. /hr. c. of helium contain 4-9 x l Q 1 4 x 22,400 1-72 x 10" 5 = 6-38 x l O 2 3 molecules Considering the extreme difficulties of measuring the very small quantities involved with the techniques then available this is a remarkably accurate figure. (ii) PERRIN'S METHOD This research was carried out in 1908 and was based on a study of the Brownian movement of colloidal particles. When such particles are suspended in a liquid they distribute themselves in the same way as gas molecules in an atmosphere, being in equilibrium under the force of gravity acting down and the Brownian movement acting in all directions.
U . c m - 1 then the force on the particle would be Xe dynes, due to the electric field and Bev dynes due to the magnetic field. 5) Thomson found that the value of v was about one-tenth of the velocity of light, but varied with the potential applied between cathode and anode, but ejm was constant and more important still was independent of the nature of the gas in the tube. He therefore concluded that these particles were constituents of all matter. He had discovered the electron — the atom of electricity.
8. The Periodic Table has been used to correct doubtful atomic weights and to predict the properties of elements before they were actually discovered. Give examples of these and other uses of the Table. What properties would you predict for element 85 (Astatine, symbol At) which nowfillsthe space formerly vacant immediately below iodine ? ] CHAPTER 3 ATOMS AND ELECTRONS Introduction DALTON'S conception of an atom was a hard dense sphere. At that time it seemed impossible that any direct evidence for the existence of atoms could be obtained, much less that they could have a structure.