By Stephen I. Schwartz
Because 1945, the us has synthetic and deployed greater than 70,000 nuclear guns to discourage and if important struggle a nuclear battle. a few observers think the absence of a 3rd global battle confirms that those guns have been a prudent and low in cost reaction to the uncertainty and worry surrounding the Soviet Union's army and political targets throughout the chilly warfare. As early as 1950, nuclear guns have been thought of quite reasonably cheap offering " an even bigger bang for a buck" and have been completely built-in into U.S. forces on that foundation. but this assumption was once by no means demonstrated. certainly, for greater than fifty years scant recognition has been paid to the big charges of this effortmore than $5 trillion hence farand its brief and long term results for the country. in keeping with 4 years of intensive study, Atomic Audit is the 1st e-book to record the great expenses of U.S. nuclear guns, assembling for the 1st time wherever the particular and envisioned costs for this system in view that its construction in 1940. The authors offer a different point of view on U.S. nuclear coverage and nuclear guns, monitoring their improvement from the long island undertaking of global struggle II to the current day and assessing each one element of this system, together with study, improvement, trying out, and construction; deployment; command, keep watch over, communications, and intelligence; and protective measures. additionally they research the prices of dismantling nuclear guns, the administration and disposal of enormous amounts of poisonous and radioactive wastes left over from their creation, repayment for people harmed via nuclear guns actions, nuclear secrecy, and the industrial implications of nuclear deterrence.Utilizing archival and newly declassified executive records and information, this richly documented ebook demonstrates how a number of factorsthe open-ended nature of nuclear deterrence, defective assumptions in regards to the cost-effectiveness of nuclear guns, commonplace misrepresentation of and overreaction to the Soviet risk, the need to keep up nuclear superiority, bureaucratic and infrequently arbitrary judgements, beef barrel politics, and over the top secrecyall drove the purchase of an arsenal a ways greater than what many modern civilian and armed forces leaders deemed helpful. those elements additionally contributed to lax monetary oversight of the full attempt via Congress and the administrative department. Atomic Audit concludes with ideas for strengthening atomic responsibility and fostering higher public realizing of nuclear guns courses and guidelines. Contributing authors are Bruce G. Blair, The Brookings establishment; Thomas S. Blanton and William Burr, the nationwide safeguard Archive; Steven M. Kosiak, heart for Strategic and Budgetary tests; Arjun Makhijani, Institute for strength and Environmental examine; Robert S. Norris, typical assets safety Council; Kevin O'Neill, Institute for technology and overseas safeguard; John Pike, Federation of yank Scientists; and William J. Weida, The Colorado university.
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Extra info for Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Since 1940
45 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Chapter 2 New-Era Warfare Gen Charles A. ) In the twenty-first century we are going to confront increasingly the threat of ballistic missiles and the need for ballistic-missile defenses . The threats posed by ballistic missiles are obvious . Many nations now have them, and not all those nations are hightech. There is also no doubt about the fact that the capabilities of ballistic missiles are increasing. Former CIA Director Woolsey, for example, noted that North Korea has developed three new ballistic missiles.
Other technologies enhance this delivery capability, such as our Global Positioning System (GPS), which gives nations the ability to target with some degree of accuracy without having to go through the same costly and intense development that we had to go through to get that system operational . There are also 48 NEW-ERA WARFARE many nations that are willing to use ballistic missiles . Iraq, Yemen, and Afghanistan are all examples . We've seen testing on the part of Vietnam, Korea, and Syria, and they are seen as necessary for defense by countries such as Saudi Arabia and Israel .
41 BATTLEFIELD OF THE FUTURE 44. Gen Robert H. S. Army in the Gulf War (Fort Leavenworth, Kansas : US Army Command and General Staff College Press, 1994), 378 . 45. , 376 . 46. Warden, 328 . 47. "Force XXI Operations," 3-21 . 48. Warden, 329-30 . 49. Ibid. 50. Mann, 38. 51 . John I. Alger, The Quest for Victory : The History of the Principles of War (Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1982) . Alger drew on the military writings of thinkers such as Sun Tzu, Machiavelli, Jomini, Mahan, Rocquancourt, Steele, MacDougall, Liddell Hart, Mao Tse-tung, Montgomery, as well as the British army, French army, German army, and US Army and Air Force in compiling his list of principles of war.