By Tsai C.S.
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Extra info for Biomacromolecules. Introduction to Struture Function and Informatics
Oligo- and polysaccharides attached to glycoconjugates participate in biological recognition involved in infection, immunity and cell–cell interaction. The synthesis, processing and editing of these glycans are probably mission-oriented. For one purpose, an exactly built glycose is required but for the others, any carbohydrate structure sufﬁces. jp/FCCA/). T. P. (eds) (1992) The Biochemistry of the Nucleic Acids, 11th edn, Chapman & Hall, London. D. and Ouellette, B. (eds) (2005) Bioinformatics: A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins, 3rd edn, Wiley-Interscience, New York.
For example, the priorities of the groups in the d-alanine molecule are NH2 > COOH > CH3 > H (priority sequence). e. H). When viewed in this way, the sequence of groups arranged according to the priority sequence can either be that of a right-handed turn (clockwise) as shown in the drawing for d-alanine (R-alanine) or that of a left-handed turn (counterclockwise). The right-handed turn indicates the conﬁguration R (rectus); the left-handed turn conﬁguration is S (sinister). To establish the priority sequence of groups, we ﬁrst look at the atoms that are bonded directly to the central atom, arranging them in order of decreasing atomic number.
The ionization behavior of α-amino acids is an important property that determines their charge, chemical reactivities and noncovalent interaction patterns. Three types of ionizable groups are recognized in αamino acids: i) α-carboxylic group; ii); α-amino group; and iii) ionizable side residues. An amino acid can therefore act as either an acid or a base at a certain pH. Compounds with this property are said to be amphoteric and are referred to as ampholytes. Molecules that bear charged groups of opposite polarity are known as zwitterions or dipolar ions.