By R. J. Prince (auth.), Dr R. M. Mortier, Dr S. T. Orszulik (eds.)
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Additional resources for Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants
Suction is applied to the inside of the horizontally mounted drum which slowly rotates with the lower part of the drum immersed in the chilled slurry. 5 em thick) builds up on the cloth and is removed by a scraper blade or blown off by inert gas. 10 Solvent de-waxing plant. de-waxed oil/solvent stream and the crude wax are handled as separate streams for solvent recovery. The wax contains an appreciable amount of oil because filtration pressures are very low and this oil can be recovered in a second filtration stage which also yields high quality wax products.
The molecular types within the wax fraction change as the boiling range BASE OILS FROM PETROLEUM 23 of the feedstock increases. Linear alkanes crystallise easily in the form of large crystals and these are the predominant constituent of wax in the lighter distillates. Iso-alkane waxes form smaller crystals and these predominate in the heavier fractions. In addition, as the temperature of dewaxing decreases, the molecular composition of the wax which crystallises out of solution also changes; the highest melting point components crystallise first.
Once the additive content and use of re-refined and synthetic oils was subtracted, the demand for petroleum derived base oils was likely to be about 36 million tonnes. The majority of base oil plants are of the conventional solvent type and were built at least 15 years ago. Since 1975 there has been significant rationalisation within the oil refining industry and many of the smaller, older plants have closed. However, a few new plants have been built and 32 CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY OF LUBRICANTS many others have undergone modernisation programmes and capacity increase through de-bottlenecking.