By U.S. Department Of Energy

The Nuclear Physics and Reactor idea guide used to be constructed to help nuclear facility working contractors in delivering operators, upkeep group of workers, and the technical employees with the mandatory basics education to make sure a easy realizing of nuclear physics and reactor conception. The guide comprises info on atomic and nuclear physics; neutron features; reactor idea and nuclear parameters; and the speculation of reactor operation. this data will supply body of workers with a starting place for figuring out the clinical ideas which are linked to a variety of Doe nuclear facility operations and upkeep.

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**Example text**

Neutron Interactions Summary Interactions where a neutron scatters off a target nucleus are either elastic or inelastic. In elastic scattering, kinetic energy and momentum are conserved and no energy is transferred into excitation energy of the target nucleus. In inelastic scattering, some amount of kinetic energy is transferred into excitation energy of the target nucleus. The conservation principles that apply to an elastic collision are conservation of kinetic energy and conservation of momentum.

The activity of a substance can be calculated from the number of atoms and the decay constant based on the equation below. The amount of activity remaining after a particular time can be calculated from the equation below. The relationship between the decay constant and the half-life is shown below. Plots of radioactive decay can be useful to describe the variation of activity over time. If decay is plotted using semi-log scale the plot results in a straight line. Radioactive equilibrium exists when the production rate of a material is equal to the removal rate.

First, solve Equation (1-5) for t. A A Ao ln A Ao Ao e e t t t ln t A Ao If A is equal to one-half of Ao, then A/Ao is equal to one-half. Substituting this in the equation above yields an expression for t1/2. 693 Page 32 Rev. 0 Atomic and Nuclear Physics DOE-HDBK-1019/1-93 RADIOACTIVITY The basic features of decay of a radionuclide sample are shown by the graph in Figure 10. Figure 10 Radioactive Decay as a Function of Time in Units of Half-Life Assuming an initial number of atoms No, the population, and consequently, the activity may be noted to decrease by one-half of this value in a time of one half-life.