Environmental Toxicants: Human Exposures and Their Health

  • Provides the most up-tp-date info and study to be had for acting hazard checks on uncovered members and populations, giving suggestions to public well-being experts, fundamental care physicians, and commercial managers
  • Reviews present wisdom on human publicity to chose chemical brokers and actual elements within the ambient setting
  • Updates and revises the former version, in mild of present clinical literature and its value to public well-being matters
  • Includes new chapters on: airline cabin exposures, arsenic, endocrine disruptors, and nanoparticles

Chapter 1 creation and history (pages 1–38): Morton Lippmann and George D. Leikauf
Chapter 2 views on person and group hazards (pages 39–54): Arthur C. Upton
Chapter three lowering Risks—An Environmental Engineering standpoint (pages 55–75): Raymond C. Loehr
Chapter four scientific point of view on breathing Toxicology (pages 77–106): Mark J. Utell and Jonathan M. Samet
Chapter five business views: Translating the information Base into company regulations, courses, and Practices for healthiness safety (pages 107–119): Fred D. Hoerger, Larry W. Rampy, Douglas A. Rausch and James S. Bus
Chapter 6 consuming Water Disinfection By?Products (pages 121–196): Richard J. Bull
Chapter 7 meals (pages 197–239): Joseph V. Rodricks
Chapter eight unstable natural Compounds and unwell development Syndrome (pages 241–256): Lars Molhave
Chapter nine Formaldehyde and different Aldehydes (pages 257–316): George D. Leikauf
Chapter 10 Ambient Air Particulate topic (pages 317–365): Morton Lippmann
Chapter eleven Arsenic (pages 367–394): Toby G. Rossman
Chapter 12 Asbestos and different Mineral and Vitreous Fibers (pages 395–458): Morton Lippmann
Chapter thirteen Benzene (pages 459–498): Bernard D. Goldstein and Gisela Witz
Chapter 14 Carbon Monoxide (pages 499–528): Michael T. Kleinman
Chapter 15 Chromium (pages 529–550): Mitchell D. Cohen
Chapter sixteen Diesel Exhaust (pages 551–631): Joe L. Mauderly and Eric Garshick
Chapter 17 Dioxins and Dioxin?Like chemical compounds (pages 633–659): Michael A. Gallo and Morton Lippmann
Chapter 18 Endocrine energetic chemical substances: Broadening the Scope (pages 661–701): Kathryn R. Mahaffey, Shirlee W. Tan, okay. Christiana Grim, Jessica C. Meiller and Donald R. Bergfelt
Chapter 19 Secondhand Smoke (pages 703–755): Jonathan M. Samet, Gila I. Neta and Sophia S. Wang
Chapter 20 Lead and Compounds (pages 757–809): Lester D. Grant
Chapter 21 Mercury (pages 811–822): Philippe Grandjean and Jesper B. Nielsen
Chapter 22 Nitrogen Oxides (pages 823–868): Richard B. Schlesinger
Chapter 23 Ozone (pages 869–936): Morton Lippmann
Chapter 24 insecticides (pages 937–956): Philip J. Landrigan and Luz Claudio
Chapter 25 Sulfur Oxides—SO2, H2SO4, NH4HSO4, and (NH4)2SO4 (pages 957–1000): Morton Lippmann
Chapter 26 Microwaves and Electromagnetic Fields (pages 1001–1020): David H. Sliney and Francis Colville
Chapter 27 resources, degrees and results of artifical Ionizing Radiation and Radioactivity (pages 1021–1070): John J. Mauro and Norman Cohen
Chapter 28 Noise: Its results and keep watch over (pages 1071–1087): Arline L. Bronzaft
Chapter 29 Radon and Lung melanoma (pages 1089–1120): Naomi H. Harley
Chapter 30 Ultraviolet Radiation (pages 1121–1162): Nigel Cridland and Colin Driscoll

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Extra info for Environmental Toxicants: Human Exposures and Their Health Effects, Third Edition

Example text

In many cases, the causal relationships are well defined, and it may be possible to develop quantitative relationships between dose and subsequent response. The number of people exposed to chemical contaminants at low levels is, of course, much greater than the number exposed at levels high enough to produce overt responses. Furthermore, low-level exposures are often continuous or repetitive over periods of many years. The responses, if any, are likely to be nonspecific, for example, an increase in the frequency of chronic diseases that are also present in nonexposed populations.

Many chemicals may exist in both lipid-soluble and -insoluble forms; the former is the prime determinant of the passive permeability properties for the specific agent. Active transport involves specialized mechanisms, with cells actively participating in transfer across membranes. These mechanisms include carrier systems within the membrane and active processes of cellular ingestion; that is, phagocytosis and pinocytosis. Phagocytosis is the ingestion of solid particles, whereas pinocytosis refers to the ingestion of fluid containing no visible solid material.

The basic design premise in field studies involving air pollutant exposures is to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio for the pollutant exposure versus response relationships. The noise on the response side of the relationships has been the focus of much work by others, and guidance on these aspects is available from the American Thoracic Society (1985). Focus is also needed on the reduction of the noise in the exposure variables. For example, the summer pollution haze is regional in scale and enriched in secondary air pollutants such as O3 and H2SO4, both of which form gradually during daylight hours in air masses containing diluted primary pollutants transported over long distances from industrial, power plant, and motor vehicle sources, especially SO2, NO2, and HC).

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