By McGrattan, Kevin; Hostikka, Simo; Floyd, Jason; Baum, Howard; Rehm, Ronald; Mell, William; McDermott, Randall
This 2010 record offers the theoretical foundation for the fireplace Dynamics Simulator (FDS), together with the governing equations and the numerical tools used to resolve them. The equations are the low Mach quantity kind of the Navier-Stokes equations, solved utilizing huge eddy simulation innovations. The advisor additionally describes thermal radiation, droplet shipping and evaporation, fire-specific detection units, and different details concerning the numerics of the version.
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Additional info for Fire Dynamics Simulator (Version 5) Technical Reference Guide, Volume 1 - Mathematical Model
24) H =0 incoming The outgoing boundary condition assumes that the pressure perturbation p˜ is zero at an outgoing boundary and that H is constant along streamlines. The incoming boundary condition assumes that H is zero infinitely far away. At the boundary between two meshes, the pressure boundary condition is similar to that at an external open boundary, except that where the flow is incoming, H is taken from the adjacent mesh. 6 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) The most distinguishing feature of any CFD model is its treatment of turbulence.
These models are described in this section. 106) Here Tl is the link temperature, Tg is the gas temperature in the neighborhood of the link, Tm is the temperature of the sprinkler mount (assumed ambient), and β is the volume fraction of (liquid) water in the gas stream. The sensitivity of the detector is characterized by the value of RTI. The amount of heat conducted away from the link by the mount is indicated by the “C-Factor”, C. The RTI and C-Factor are determined experimentally. The constant C2 has been empirically determined by DiMarzo and co-workers [38, 39, 40] 1 to be 6 × 106 K/(m/s) 2 , and its value is relatively constant for different types of sprinklers.
For the second model, individual gas species react according to specified Arrhenius reaction parameters. This latter model is most often used in a direct numerical simulation (DNS) where the diffusion of fuel and oxygen can be modeled directly. However, most often for large eddy simulations (LES), where the grid is not fine enough to resolve the diffusion of fuel and oxygen, the mixture fraction-based combustion model is assumed. 1 Mixture Fraction Combustion Model Given a volume containing a mixture of gas species, a mixture fraction can be defined that is the ratio of the mass of a subset of the species to the total mass present in the volume.