By Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks
Up to date with new fabric to mirror the most recent advancements within the box, Gender in heritage : international views, second version, offers a concise evaluate of the development of gender in international cultures from the Paleolithic period to trendy occasions.
- Includes examples drawn from the latest scholarship when it comes to a various diversity of cultures, from historic Mesopotamia to post-Soviet Russia, and from the Igbo of Nigeria, to the Iroquois of north japanese North America.
- Reflects new advancements within the box with extra insurance of primates, slavery, colonialism, masculinity, and transgender issues
- Features major dialogue of the Paleolithic and Neolithic sessions, an incredible development within the research of worldwide history
- Lays out key theoretical and methodological concerns in an advent that's written in available language
- Supplementary fabric for teachers and scholars on hand at www.wiley.com/go/wiesnerhanks
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Additional resources for Gender in History: Global Perspectives
As men plowed (literally) more resources into their land, they set up inheritance systems to pass land and other goods on to the next generation. In patrilineal systems, property went to their own Introduction 19 children, so men were motivated to increase their surveillance of women’s sexual activities. (How much of men’s desire to control women’s sexuality in a patrilineal system is “biological” and how much is cultural is hotly disputed. ) Men generally carried out the plowing and care for animals, which led to boys being favored over girls for the work they could do for their parents while young and the support they could provide in their parents’ old age; boys became the normal inheritors of family land and the rights to work communally held land.
Kung (Jul’hoansi) of South Africa, Mbuti of Zaire, or Innu (Montagnais-Naskapi) of Labrador, appear to be (or have been) quite egalitarian, with the tasks of men and women differentiated, but equally valued. Cultures in which several of these were lacking, such as some in North America that did not have bureaucratic states or plow agriculture, were also less patriarchal than the norm. This is not universally the case, however, for there are also gathering and hunting cultures in which male dominance is extreme.
Most men married, but being unmarried did not bar a man from political life, which was viewed as the center of human existence by many Athenians. In contrast to most classical societies, Athenians regarded the individual man, rather than the family, as the basis of the social order, and the central relationship one between a younger man and an older man who trained him in cultural and political adulthood. ) Classical Rome had very different norms of family life than either Sparta or Athens. The word “family” (famiglia) in ancient Rome actually meant all those under the authority of a male head of household, including nonrelated slaves and servants.