By Sangeeta M. Sonak
This e-book elaborates at the Khazan ecosystems of Goa, India. Khazans are human-managed ecosystems, that are reclaimed from coastal wetlands, salt marshes and mangrove parts, the place tidal effect is regulated via a hugely dependent approach of dykes, canals, furrows, and sluice gates utilizing assets which are amply to be had in the community. Khazan ecosystems are marvels of tribal engineering. they're a basic architectural layout, which function at a truly low working fee utilizing tidal, hydro, and solar power. The layout contributes to a hugely advanced yet green surroundings integrating agriculture, aquaculture and salt panning. . Khazan ecosystems were useful for the final 3500 years. The historical past of Khazans is especially old and will be traced to the transition from foodstuff collecting to nutrition transforming into, which has been considered as the most important step within the historical past of human civilization. Khazan ecosystems therefore have a excessive old and international background price. also they are repositories of world biodiversity, with detailed plants compatible to their distinct and hugely variable setting. they're endemic and history ecosystems of Goa and eventually reservoirs of heritage and heritage.
Using the instance of the Khazan lands, the ebook analyzes and reviews on conventional ecological wisdom and indigenous know-how. It provides the evolution of Khazan administration associations over a interval of greater than 3 thousand years, in addition to components that experience contributed to its decline in recent times. It develops a conceptual framework for surroundings functionality and indicates ideas for conservation of Khazans in addition to ideas to construct on those indigenous variation mechanisms to deal with the worldwide environmental change.
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Extra info for Khazan Ecosystems of Goa: Building on Indigenous Solutions to Cope with Global Environmental Change
Papers submitted to the seminar held at Panaji, Goa on 18–21 Sept 1981, Geological Survey of India, Hyderabad, p 618 Gokul AR, Srinivasan MD, Gopalkrishnan K, Viswanathan LS (1985) Stratigraphy and structure of Goa, pp 1–13. In: Proceedings of Earth resources for Goa’s development: a collection of seminar papers. Papers submitted to the seminar held at Panaji, Goa on 18–21 Sept 1981, Geological Survey of India, Hyderabad, p 618 Govindrajan SV, Murthy RS, Jain SP, Raghumohan NG, Venkataraman M (1974) A survey of natural resources of Goa with particular reference to soils and land classification for agricultural development.
Traditionally, Eleusine coracana or red millet/ragi locally called as nachane is another crop grown in khazan soil. Red lateritic soil from forests or soil containing clay and lime from the dykes or embankments of khazan paddy fields yield the best crop of nachane. A particular variety of red millet called ‘dudhmogra’ is grown in the alluvial soil of river Tiracol in Pernem, whereas another variety called ‘chari-nachni’ is transplanted in the khazan embankments in the villages of Cumbarjua, Jua, Macasana, Shiroda and Lotulim (De Bragança Pereira 2008).
Coarse sand (%) b. Silt (%) c. 2 are slightly elevated for small amount of water and soil retention. Outer protective dykes are built very thick, which helps them withstand high pressure of estuarine water flow and also tidal influences. A furrow (chanoy) is dug in between the two walls of the protective dyke. This furrow is filled with the glue-like clay from the fields. The clay serves to fasten together the two sides of the dyke firmly. Protective dyke is also covered with the clay and mud from fields (Fig.