Language Engineering for Lesser-Studied Languages - Volume by S. Nirenburg

By S. Nirenburg

Applied sciences allowing desktops to approach particular languages facilitate fiscal and political development of societies the place those languages are spoken. improvement of equipment and platforms for language processing is as a result a helpful aim for nationwide governments in addition to for company entities and medical and academic associations in each state on the planet. As paintings on structures and assets for the 'lower-density' languages turns into extra common, a massive query is the best way to leverage the implications and adventure accrued via the sphere of computational linguistics for the foremost languages within the improvement of assets and platforms for lower-density languages. This factor has been on the center of the NATO complicated experiences Institute on language applied sciences for center- and low-density languages held in Georgia in October 2007. This e-book is a suite - of publication-oriented types - of the lectures provided there and is an invaluable resource of data approximately many center points of recent computational-linguistic paintings. by way of an identical token, it may possibly function a reference resource for individuals drawn to studying approximately recommendations which are most fitted for constructing computational-linguistic functions for lesser-studied languages - both 'from scratch' or utilizing elements built for different languages. The ebook must also be really priceless in instructing functional method- and resource-building issues in computational linguistics.IOS Press is a global technological know-how, technical and clinical writer of top of the range books for teachers, scientists, and pros in all fields. the various components we put up in: -Biomedicine -Oncology -Artificial intelligence -Databases and data platforms -Maritime engineering -Nanotechnology -Geoengineering -All points of physics -E-governance -E-commerce -The wisdom economic climate -Urban reports -Arms regulate -Understanding and responding to terrorism -Medical informatics -Computer Sciences

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E. automatically deciding which of the k interpretations is the correct one is hard to do. However, the oracle concept, as defined above, is very useful since its accuracy allows an estimation of the upper bound of correctness that can be reached by a given tagger combination. The experiment described in [42] is a combined tagger model. The evaluation corpus is the LOB corpus. Four different taggers are used: a trigram HMM tagger [44], a memory-based tagger [22], a rule-based tagger [19] and a Maximum Entropy-based tagger [21].

The high level of interest in word alignment has been generated by research and development in statistical machine translation [61], [67], [68], [69] etc. Similarly to many techniques used in data-driven NLP, word alignment methods are, to a large extent, language-independent. To evaluate them and further improve their performance, NAACL (2003) and ACL (2005) organized evaluation competitions on word alignment for languages with scarce resources, paired with English. Word alignment is related to but not identical with extraction of bilingual lexicons from parallel corpora.

For this purpose, we used the following combining formula: M(X, Y) = MA(X, Y) ˆ MB(X, Y) The global mapping contains all the tag pairs for which one of the tags prefers the other, in both corpora. As this condition is a very strong one, several potentially correct mappings will be left out from M(X, Y) either because of insufficient data, or because of idiosyncratic behavior of some lexical items. To correct this problem the global mapping is supplemented with the token mappings. 3. The Token Mapings The global mapping expresses the preferences from one tag to another in a nonlexicalized way and is used as a back-off mechanism when the more precise lexicalized mapping is not possible.

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