By David Matsumoto
The hot Japan through David Matsumoto units out to explain the anxiousness and unrest that plague present jap society, the rift among the older, extra conventional generations and the more youthful, extra cosmopolitan and Westernized generations.
The writer attracts upon a wealth pf jap and Western assets to bring together a thourough exploration of either classis and modern perspectives of eastern culture.
Citing educational reviews and surveys, Matsumoto debunks seven universal stereotypes of eastern tradition: collectivism, cognizance of others, perceptions of self, emotionality, the salaryman, schooling and lifelong employment, and marriage.
Matsumoto additionally explores the explanations behimnd tumultous upheavals, the that means of the moving cultural styles within the office, schooling, activities, and daily life.
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Extra resources for New Japan: Debunking Seven Cultural Stereotypes
This test included over one hundred questions, was based on years of work in the field, and has been reliably used in a number of studies concerning this cultural dimension. When we tested for differences between the two groups on their overall individualism-collectivism scores, we found no differences. Other researchers have reported similar results. For example, Kim Carter and Dale Dinnel tested American Chapter Two 41 and Japanese university students on two scales designed to measure collectivistic attitudes and values (Carter and Dinnel 1997).
14 Various societies differ greatly in the relative emphasis placed on the individual and the group. Certainly no difference is more significant between Japanese and Americans, or Westerners in general, than the greater Japanese tendency to emphasize the group at the expense of the individual…. The key Japanese value is harmony, which they seek to achieve by a subtle process of mutual understanding, almost by intuition, rather than by a sharp analysis of conflicting views or by clear-cut decisions, whether made by oneman dictates or majority votes.
42 When various aspects of collectivism and individualism are studied separately, the findings are even more revealing. For example, in the study conducted by my laboratory that was described earlier (Matsumoto et al. 1997b), we asked American, Japanese, Korean, and Russian university students to complete a test of individualistic and collectivistic values in relation to their interactions with their family members. Many social scientists, Japanese and non-Japanese alike, have often described the importance of the nuclear family as the most stable and prototypical example of collectivistic values and behaviors in Asian cultures.