Pharmaceutical Process Scale- Up. A Plan for Total Quality by Levin M. (ed.)

By Levin M. (ed.)

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Determination of the characteristic geometric parameter: It is obvious that we could name all the geometric parameters indicated in Sketch 2. They were all the geometric parameters of the stirrer and of the vessel, especially its diameter D and the liquid height H. In case of complex geometry such a procedure would necessarily deflect us from the problem. It is therefore advisable to introduce only one characteristic geometric parameter, knowing that all the others can be transformed into dimensionless geometric numbers by division with this one.

B) The standard representation of the behavior ␳(T) for the same liquids. 26 Zlokarnik [secϪ1]. The proportionality constant, the dynamic viscosity ␮, is the only material constant in Newton’s law of motion: ␶ ϭ ␮␥˙ (31) ␮ depends only on temperature. In the case of non-Newtonian liquids, ␮ depends on ␥˙ as well. These liquids can be classified into various categories of materials depending on their flow behavior: ␮(␥˙) ϭ flow curve and ␮(␶) ϭ viscosity curve. D. Pseudoplastic Fluids An extensive class of non-Newtonian fluids is formed by pseudoplastic fluids whose flow curves obey the so-called “power law”: ␶ ϭ K␥˙ m → ␮eff ϭ K␥˙ (mϪ1) (32) These liquids are known as Ostwald–de Waele fluids.

Tech. 42:1009–1011, 1970. M. Zlokarnik. Design and scale-up of mechanical foam breakers. Ger. Chem. Eng. 9:314–320, 1986. M. Zlokarnik. Scale-up under conditions of partial similarity. Int. Chem. Eng. 27:1–9, 1987. M. Zlokarnik. Dimensional Analysis, Scale-Up. In: Encyclopedia of Bio process Technology: Fermentation, Biocatalysis, Bioseparation. Vol. 2, 840–861. C. Flickinger and S. W. ) Wiley, 1999. -J. Henzler. Rheologische Stoffeigenschaften—Erklärung, Messung, Erfassung und Bedeutung. -Tech.

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