PIXE: A Novel Technique for Elemental Analysis by Sven A. E. Johansson

By Sven A. E. Johansson

The 1st accomplished evaluate of the fundamental physics, and glossy functions, of proton-induced x-ray emission. The physics part and the functions part are fairly autonomous, making for simple reference. The authors talk about tool layout, and the way to address specimens. They then survey the big variety of purposes to which proton-induced x-ray emission has been positioned. Illustrated.

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Hence the process of cooling and trapping simultaneously means reducing the velocity as well as reducing their position spread. This finally leads to lower uncertainty in momentum and position. But the uncertainty product being of the order of Planck constant h, it is possible to get velocity of the order of m/sec and position confinement of less than 1 cm for the atoms. Cooling a dilute gas of atoms For cooling the gas atoms we need cooling them at low density, so that no nucleation occurs. Thus the process differs from the usual condensation process where the atoms or molecules come close together and a strong intermolecular interaction develops.

Hence the laser beams coming from six mutually perpendicular opposite directions can reduce the velocity components from all directions. Doppler shift of frequency causes the atoms to absorb only the atoms coming from the opposite directions. But this method has a limit and the kinetic temperature of the atoms can be reduced to a few hundred milikelvin only. Further reduction of temperature is possible by using polarized laser beams (1). Magneto-Optic trapping Trapping is achieved by applying magnetic field varying linearly with position to confine the cold atoms to the center of the trap.

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