By Committee on Long-Term Research Needs for Radioactive High-Level Waste at Department of Energy Sites, Board on Radioactive Waste Management, National Research Council
Record from the Committee on long term learn wishes for Radioactive High-Level Waste at division of power websites, Board on Radioactive Waste administration. Softcover.
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Extra resources for Research Needs for High-Level Waste Stored in Tanks and Bins at the U.S. Department of Energy Sites
Moreover, the complicated procedures necessary during retrieval, transport, and measurement of highly radioactive samples significantly increase the chances of error. Research with the objective of improving characterization operations will contribute to increased safety, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. H 28 I G H - L E V E L W A S T E Characterization Issues The committee identified long-term basic research needs related to characterization activities throughout the HLW treatment process. The objective of the recommended long-term basic research for characterization is to provide the scientific basis for developing innovative methods acquiring real-time and, when practical, in situ characterization data for HLW and process streams that could be useful for all phases of the waste management program.
3 shows DOE’s baseline plan for HLW management in (left) and a DST (right) at the Hanford. Hanford Site. SOURCE: DOESo far, the waste has been characterized to the extent feasible for its Tanks Focus Area. heterogeneous contents. Waste retrieval operations have just begun. 4 x 1018 becquerels) Characteristic of HLW Alkaline waste (pH approximately 12), saltcake, viscous liquid, sludge, and highly non Types of tanks Carbon steel, SST and DST homogeneous waste Waste sluicing by pumping liquid to entrain the sludge is the technique chosen for retrieval of the waste from the tanks.
An example would be the determination of chemical composition by analysis of gamma radiation emitted after interrogation using neutrons from a remote source. Aerial or satellite fly-by analysis is an extreme example of remote measurement. 1 Desirable Types of Characterization and Examples of Analytes in Different Process Areas Process Area Type of Analysis Examples of Analytes Stored waste Chemical • Elements and molecular species in condensed and gaseous phases of waste and chemical speciation • pH Physical • Same properties as for the retrieval and pretreatment process area • Foam or crust thickness in tanks Retrieval Radiological • Major radionuclides Physical • Density • Rheology • Percent solids • Height of the liquids in concentrated salt solutions and sludges Pretreatment Chemical • Major glass-forming components such as B, Na, Ca, Al, and Si associated with melter feeds; these analyses currently determine the glass product acceptability • Metals associated with melter life and product quality, such as noble metals, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr in melter feeds • Anions associated with glass product quality and melter corrosion, such as sulfates, phosphates, fluorides, and chlorides • RCRA materials in the secondary waste streams • Organics that may affect the redox potential of the glass melt Physical • Liquid levels in concentrated salt solutions and sludges • Particle size distribution • Density Radiological • Radionuclides associated with high-activity fields and HLW such as Cs-137, Sr-90, U-235, Tc-99, Np-237, and other transuranic elements Immobilization Chemical • Redox potential of the melter feed • pH • Organic materials that affect melter operation such as tri-N-butyl phosphate, multi-ring aromatics • Volatile species present in off-gas stream such as RCRA materials, NOx, and SOx; toxic gases; and Hg and other semivolatile metals such as B, Cs, and Na Physical • Viscosity • Density • Foam or crust thickness in the melter Radiological Tank Closure • Radionuclides in the off-gas stream, such as Tc, Cs, and I Chemical • Metals associated with environmental concerns such as Pb, Hg, Cr, Np, and Pu Radiological • Residual radionuclides remaining in tanks and process facilities, such as Cs, Np, Tc, and Pu NOTE: RCRA = Resource Conservation and Recovery Act H 30 I G H - L E V E L W A S T E steps.