Russian Contributions to Invertebrate Behavior by Charles I Abramson, Yuri Burmistrov, Zhanna Shuranova

By Charles I Abramson, Yuri Burmistrov, Zhanna Shuranova

This edited assortment is an advent to the invertebrate paintings being played by way of Russian scientists. the main emphasis is on stories of studying. during this e-book, the editors and participants have introduced jointly modern Russian experimental information at the habit of varied invertebrates together with crustaceans, bugs, and mollusks. The ebook may be invaluable for these drawn to buying a operating wisdom of the behavioral ideas, facts, concerns and heritage of Russian reviews of invertebrate habit. it is going to even be of curiosity to these learning the heritage of behavioral technological know-how in Russia.

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The great bulk of young scientists who had an interest in animal behavior were involved by necessity with the views expressed by Pavlov and his school. After Pavlov's death in 1936, the main person responsible for the development of higher nervous activity became L. A. Orbeli (1882-1958). Orbeli was a student of Pavlov and a renowned scientist in theoretical and applied physiology. 3. His interests were rather broad. They included higher nervous activity, evolutionary physiology, trophic functions of the nervous system, kidney functions, and problems associated with pain (Leibson 1973; Svidersky, Veselkin, and Natochin 1988).

My additional purpose is to illustrate (by examples taken from behavioral studies of invertebrates) the great influence of nonscientific factors on scientific work in this country. General Remarks It is well known that there were many great names in the last century in the field of invertebrate zoology in Russia (Strelkov 1967). First of all are the names of A. O. Kovalevsky and I. I. Mechnikov. Many brilliant investigations describing the natural history and morphological features of various invertebrates were performed at the end of the nineteenth and in the beginning of the twentieth century.

In this case we can see every reaction in its entity, in all its appearances. The whole animal—the single cell—is before our eyes under the microscope, and we can discriminate all the peculiarities of every response" (Metalnikov 1915:1803). The variability observed in the reflexive behavior of protozoans suggested to Metalinikov the presence of individual behavior acquired through experience. 26 RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO INVERTEBRATE BEHAVIOR Certainly this position of the author could not be accepted by many behavioral scientists of that time (and especially of the time that followed).

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