Sandstorm: Policy Failure in the Middle East by Leon Hadar

By Leon Hadar

The time has come for a major debate at the destiny involvement of the U.S. within the heart East and this unique and provocative research demanding situations the existing knowledge of the Washington international coverage institution. Hadar presents a sweeping reexamination of the conceptual bases of yank coverage and proposes a technique of "constructive disengagement" from the quarter, a coverage of benign overlook as a fashion of marketing the pursuits of the us in addition to these of the folk of the center East. Hadar demands neighborhood states and the ecu Union to take elevated accountability for defense, fiscal progress, and political balance. This daring and leading edge critique will inject new power into the coverage debate.

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Sample text

Bush proposed and utilized policy methods to protect the MEP that were different than those applied by Bush I and Clinton and their policy advisors. Instead of an off-shore balancing strategy in which the United States maintained its hegemony through mostly indirect military engagement in the Middle East, the neocons promoted a strategy based on direct and unilateral American presence in the region, with the occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq being the first steps to the promotion of American imperial policy, including the possible military moves against Syria and Iran.

The presence of two competing superpowers in the Middle East during the Cold War increased pressure on them to expand their military and economic resources, got entangled in costly local and regional conflicts, and almost forced them into nuclear military confrontation during the 1973 war. But at the same time, each superpower could set constraints on their respective clients during times of crisis and diplomacy and press them to accept diplomatic and military moves that accorded with the common interests of Washington and Moscow.

34 Some examples of overreach by the United States in the Middle East during the Cold War include: • • • • The efforts by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles to foster the pro-Western Baghdad Treaty, which excluded Cairo, resulted in the Egyptian-Czech arms agreement and the beginning of a major Soviet presence in the area. The Eisenhower Doctrine sought to build a bulwark of alliances against Egypt’s increasing influence but failed to impose its agenda on the Middle East since it did not accord with clearly expressed regional interests, especially with those of the rising forces of Pan Arabism represented by Egypt’s President Nasser.

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