By OECD IEA
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Additional info for Technology Roadmap: Concentrating Solar Power
Pdf. Octobre, J. (2009), “Solaire thermodynamique: les clés pour comprendre”, Systèmes solaires, No. 192, pp. 10-24. Pharabod, F. and C. Philibert (1991), Les centrales solaires LUZ, Comité d’action pour le solaire, Paris. PricewaterhouseCoopers (2010), 100% Renewable Electricity: A Roadmap to 2050 for Europe and North Africa, PricewaterhouseCoopers, London. SolarPACES (various), Annual Reports 1998 to 2008, SolarPACES, Tabernas, Spain. SolarPACES, Solar Fuels from Concentrated Sunlight, SolarPACES, Tabernas, Spain.
OECD/IEA, 2010 Figure 13: D ifferent thermochemical routes to producing fuels with concentrating solar energy Source: PSI/ETH-Zürich. Milestones for technology improvements 33 Short-term options would reduce CO2 emissions but not eliminate them. In the presence of carbon from fossil fuels or biomass, the carbo-thermal reduction of metals could take place at lower temperatures, but the output, instead of pure hydrogen, would be a syngas mixture of H2 and carbon monoxide (CO). Similarly, solar-assisted steam reforming of natural gas, and steam gasification of coal or solid biomass, can yield syngas.
Figure 12: P rojected evolution of the levelised electricity cost from CSP plants, in USD/MWh, under two different DNI levels in kWh/m2/y © OECD/IEA, 2010 Note: DNI = direct normal irradiance Economic perspectives 29 Milestones for technology improvements Troughs and LFR Table 3 summarises the main features of different CSP technologies and their outlook for improvements. Technology advances are under development that will enable CSP to boost electricity production and reduce costs, notably through higher temperatures that bring greater efficiency.