The Circassian Genocide by Walter Richmond

By Walter Richmond

Circassia used to be a small self sustaining kingdom at the northeastern shore of the Black Sea. For no cause except ethnic hatred, over the process 1000s of raids the Russians drove the Circassians from their fatherland and deported them to the Ottoman Empire. no less than 600,000 humans misplaced their lives to bloodbath, hunger, and the weather whereas thousands extra have been compelled to go away their place of origin. by way of 1864, three-fourths of the inhabitants was once annihilated, and the Circassians had develop into one of many first stateless peoples in sleek background.

Using infrequent archival fabrics, Walter Richmond chronicles the background of the struggle, describes intimately the ultimate genocidal crusade, and follows the Circassians in diaspora via 5 generations as they fight to outlive and go back domestic. He areas the sessions of acute genocide, 1821–1822 and 1863–1864, within the better context of centuries of hysteria among the 2 international locations and updates the tale to the current day because the Circassian neighborhood works to achieve overseas reputation of the genocide because the sector prepares for the 2014 wintry weather Olympics in Sochi, the location of the Russians’ ultimate victory.

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The Circassian Genocide

Circassia used to be a small self sufficient country at the northeastern shore of the Black Sea. For no cause except ethnic hatred, over the process hundreds of thousands of raids the Russians drove the Circassians from their place of birth and deported them to the Ottoman Empire. a minimum of 600,000 humans misplaced their lives to bloodbath, hunger, and the weather whereas thousands extra have been pressured to depart their fatherland.

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Since, according to the treaties of Küçük Kaynarca (1774) and Jassy (1792), all land south of the Kuban River belonged to Turkey, when the Porte ceded the coast in the Treaty of Adrianople, St. 3 This too was nonsense. Turkey’s “possession” of Circassia under Küçük Kaynarca and Jassy was a de jure declaration that had no connection with reality, so the Russian assumption that Circassia was now under the jurisdiction of St. Petersburg was a fiction built upon a fiction. In his memoirs, Russian officer Fyodor Tornau claims St.

Ermolov’s rapid colonization of Lesser Kabardia with Cossacks and Ossetians is clear evidence that he had no intention to allow the Kabardians to recover from their losses. Furthermore, as Safar Beituganov has argued, “the punitive expeditions were inescapably accompanied by the mass migration of Kabardian auls across the Kuban—­more than sixty settlements between 1821 and 1822. ”75 Technically, Beituganov is correct: Ermolov’s campaign resulted in the first forced migration to the Ottoman Empire.

Subsequent generations would emulate Ermolov’s form of success.  .  . 46 Baddeley summarizes Ermolov’s ideology in similar terms: Yermoloff’s central idea was that the whole of the Caucasus must, and should, become an integral part of the Russian Empire; that the existence of independent or semi-­independent States or communities of any description, whether Christian, Mussulman, or Pagan, in the mountains or on the plains, was incompatible with the dignity and honor of his master, the safety and welfare of his subjects.

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