The Ebbing of European Ascendancy: An International History by Sally Marks

By Sally Marks

In the many years among the realm Wars, the worldwide energy constitution used to be remodeled. The as soon as nice ecu powers have been now not ascendant, whether they'd no longer but stated it, and the united states, a nearby energy as of 1914, now belonged to a brand new class: "superpower." What occurred during this brief interval to bring in this type of dramatic swap? The Ebbing of eu Ascendancy explores the the most important components, together with the foreign heritage of the interval in Africa, Asia, the center East, and Latin the United States, as unmarried interlocking complete to obviously learn essentially the most dramatic, around the globe energy shifts within the final century.

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76-80. 6. Zara S. Steiner, Britain and the Origins of the First World War (London, Macmillan, 1977), pp. 221-2. 7. Geiss, July 1914, p. 256. 8. Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers (New York, Random House, 1987), p. 216. 9. D. C. B. Lieven, Russia and the Origins of the First World War (London, Macmillan, 1983), pp. 149-50. THE COMING OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR 37 10. V. R. Berghahn, Germany and the Approach of War in 1914 (London, Macmillan, 1973), p. 207. 11. Geiss, July 1914, p. 345.

However, for Berlin, detaching Britain from France and humiliating the latter came first. Despite initial successes, Germany overreached itself and ended up with little, in part because Austria gave minimal support and Italy none. The United States mediated but did not endorse German claims. As the danger of war receded, Britain concluded that Germany was the greater threat. Thus it moved to detente with Russia and military talks with France, solidifying the Entente. Germany found itself isolated and concluded illogically that it must prop Austria up as a great power in order to have a major ally.

This fear remained acute in 1914, though on the other hand German leaders understood that the Entente's intentions were peaceful, which is why they thought initially that war could be localized. There was fear of economic encirclement as well, an exaggerated response to a trend toward higher tariffs and to French investment in eastern Europe. There was a sense of isolation, which made Germany feel dependent on its sole reliable ally, and a corresponding fright that this ally would collapse or cease to be a great power.

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