The Science of Air: Concepts and Applications by Frank R. Spellman

By Frank R. Spellman

The technological know-how of Air: thoughts and purposes is a different textual content dedicated to each point of air. The learn of air is heavily regarding different medical disciplines, between them: chemistry, arithmetic, meteorology, and physics. in the course of the view that air is the first substance to so much existence in the world, The technology of Air provides the typical subject matters of air source usage and air safety with sections on pollution and remediation.

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A little over 40% of the sun's radiation reaching earth hits the surface and is changed to heat. The rest stays in the atmosphere or is reflected back into space. Like a greenhouse, the Earth's atmosphere admits most of the solar radiation. When solar radiation is absorbed by the Earth's surface, it is reradiated as heat waves, most of which are trapped by carbon dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere, which work to keep the Earth warm in the same way a greenhouse traps heat. By now you are aware of the many functions performed by the Earth's  < previous page < previous page page_143 page_144 next page > next page > Page 144 atmosphere.

A city, for example, is usually characterized by having haze and smog, higher temperatures, lower wind speed, and reduced radiation. The countryside, on the other hand, is characterized by clean, clear air, lower temperatures, and higher wind speeds and radiation. These different microclimatic conditions should come as no surprise to anyone, especially when you consider what happens when a city is built. Â < previous page < previous page page_151 page_152 next page > next page > Page 152 Instead of a mixture of soil or vegetation, the surface layer is covered with concrete, brick, glass, and stone surfaces ranging to heights of several hundred feet.

Thus, we find that land surfaces are characterized by high day (and summer) temperatures and low night (and winter) temperatures. Now let's take a look at the response of the sea, which is very different. Solar energy (sunshine) is able to penetrate through the water to a certain level. Much solar energy has to be absorbed to raise its temperature. Through wave action and convection, the warm surface water is mixed with cooler, deeper water. With enough solar energy and time, the top several feet of water form an active layer where temperature change is slow.

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